Ojibwe, Ottowa, Chippewa etc. are decendents of the Hopewell People Who were People of the Hopewell* Culture?
Between 2,200 and 1,500 years ago the Hopewell Cultural Expression flourished in the Eastern half of the North America continent, becoming one of the most influential cultures ever to exist in North American prehistory. Centered in what is now southern Ohio, they were epic travelers and consummate artists. Living in what is speculated to have been a singularly peaceful environment, they intentionally gathered materials for their crafts from far-flung places, apparently making epic journeys to the Great Lakes for copper, Florida for shells, the Carolinas for mica, and Yellowstone for obsidian. The Hopewell Culture?s great ceremony centers at the present Ohio cities of Newark, Chillicothe, and Portsmouth once served as what could be perceived metaphorically as the Rome of their religious influence, the Alexandria of their relics and art. So stunning were their ornaments and religious relicts that their sacred art has cross-cultural impact, even today.
Using the earth as a sacred canvas.
The Hopewell Culture is best known for its sacred enclosures which were created by building earthen walls up to 12 feet high, which they used to outline immense symmetrical shapes, commonly squares, circles and octagons on the surface of the earth. The large enclosures often contained areas 40 -120 acres in size, which served as ceremonial, religious and burial grounds for Hopewell communities. Enclosures also often included earthen mounds, both within and outside the earthen walls, some of them containing burials with an astonishing wealth of grave art -- hence the common name of "mound builders." Despite the Hopewell Culture?s occupation as primarily hunters and gatherers and their relatively low population density, Hopewell Culture earthworks are recognized as being among the largest prehistoric earthworks in the world.